Turkey – Music
1.Turkish Music Culture
Turkey’s cultural fabric is made up of a rich combination of diverse cultures rooted deeply in history. By virtue of its geographical position, Turkey lies at the axis of the cultures of the East, the West, the Middle Eastern, the Mediterranean and Islam. Anatolia is one of the world’s oldest human habitats – hosts of civilizations have called it home – and it enjoys a unique cultural richness with its thousands of years of history. Anatolia’s cultural variety is so rich that we can see great cultural differences even in areas geographically quite close to each other.
This colorful portrait holds just as true for Turkey’s music.
More information: https://www.ktb.gov.tr/EN-98639/turkish-music-culture-and-examples.html
2. Traditional / Local Music
The Concept of Traditional Music: This is generally music that is created in a common manner, has continued from the time of its production right down to the present day, is popular and frequently played and recited in its region and by local people, and is usually anonymous.
In Turkey, music that conforms to the above definition, which is produced by and located in a settled culture and which has thereby become traditional, can be classified as either ‘religious’ or ‘secular.’ These can also be considered under the headings ‘Folk/Local Music’ and ‘Ottoman Music.’ These two groups have many features in common, and can be classified as either ‘instrumental’ or ‘with lyrics.’
Folk/Local Music: These are forms of music created by people settled in one particular location, played or recited with great affection. Such music bears the traces of local cultures, and the names of the composers are generally unknown. Below are some samples:
Ottoman Music: The form of music today generally known as Türk Sanat Müziği, or Ottoman Classical Music, matured, developed in form and aesthetics and came to assume the identity of a form of classical music in parallel to the establishment, growth and increasing strength of the Ottoman state itself. This variety of music furnished products dealing with many subjects, such as religion, love and war.
3. Modern Turkish Classical Music
Western influence had already begun to be felt in Ottoman music towards the middle of the 19th century. These increased towards the end of the century, and led to efforts to change Ottoman music from monodic to polyphonic.
With the declaration of the republic in 1923, Cemal Reşid (REY), who was then studying music in Europe, returned to Turkey and began to teach at a music school established in Istanbul. The group that would later be called ‘Türk Beşleri’ (the Turkish Five) and which prepared the groundwork for Modern Polyphonic Turkish Music, emerged.
4. Popular Music
Popular music is to a large extent produced by the consumer generation, or even if not later came on to take on many of those characteristics, and takes its form from the criteria of its own particular sectoral features, in such a way that the values that comprise those criteria are not based on the preferences of the culture of any one section of society, and thus is a form that to a large extent brings together different cultures.
In Turkey, popular culture and the music belonging to it are spreading in this environment with great rapidity in all sections of community.
5. Other Music Examples
Marches and Anthems: İstiklal Marşı (Turkish National Anthem)