Human rights: rights and freedoms that belong to all human beings, regardless of any condition. Human rights are expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and offer a normative framework for the formulation of regional and national youth policies, as well as strengthening the policies through legal obligations. Human rights are legal rights that States around the world have agreed to through international documents such as treaties, conventions and covenants. Governments, therefore, have a legal obligation to respect, protect and fulfill human rights. (Council of Europe)
Labor rights: The EU has adopted minimum requirements for the protection of young workers (under 18 years of age) and their health and safety at work. The employment of young people must be strictly controlled and protected under the conditions provided for in the Directive (COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 94/33/EC of 22 June 1994 on the Protection of Young People at Work, 1994).
Decision maker: The Cambridge Dictionary defines “decision-maker” as “a person who decides things, especially at a high level in an organisation”. We are referring to those institutions, organisations and leadership structures able to impact policies, regulations, programmes and very relevant issues affecting youth and the general population. For example, some Civil Society Organisations, such as Foundations, Associations, or industrial clusters, can be considered decision-makers due to its influence on public issues. Typically, public administrations – and some public administration officers -, parties and labor unions are the most relevant considering their active role.
European Citizenship: Created with the adoption of the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the European Citizenship is additional and complementary to your National Citizenship and applies to all EU-member States. The European Citizenship implies legal protections of EU law: the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union proclaimed on the 7th of December, 2020 and into force since the 1st of December, 2009 (Treaty of Lisbon) guarantees us political, social and economic rights, all of them also reinforced by several directives, acts, agreements and treaties (Chapter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 2000/C 364/01, 2000). The key citizenship competencies involves Knowledge, Skills and Values (Griffin et al., 2012).
European identity: The European Union conciles the national identities within a wider project based on multicultural, diverse and resilient union of nations and communities (Dittrich van Weringh, 2005). Thus the European Identity appears as ‘ an “intermediary” identity between the national and the global’ (Foundation Robert Schuman, 2018).
Deliberative democracy: Emerging around 1990, deliberative democracy is unified by a central belief that democracy ought to involve more than voting and decision making by elected representatives. While there is considerable variation among deliberative scholars on the specifics, deliberative capacity of a democratic polity can be captured by the conditions ‘deliberativeness’, ‘inclusiveness’ and ‘consequentiality’ (Dryzek, 1990, 2009).